data are units of information. They are collected observations, figures, symbols. Data are formal representations of relations and things that exist in the world. Data are necessary for computers to carry out calculations.
When fermenting data, we engage in forms of data processing, creating and collecting data. While making ferments, we construct a fermenting database by observing and naming, with words, figures, and symbols. Such data has no significance by itself. But once created it is possible to understand relations between data, for example a longer process of fermentation results in a more acidic taste, etc. In the case of fermenting data, relations are revealed differently. We gather the produce, we chop it and massage it with salt. We leave it to ferment, observing how it changes each day — tasting the change, smelling the change, and then we eat it.